Glioblastoma (GBM) is a malignant brain tumor that remains among the most formidable cancers. Despite a well-established standard of care of maximal surgical resection followed by radiotherapy plus concomitant temozolomide (TMZ), median survival remains approximately 15 months. GBM is characterized by the hallmarks of rapid growth, invasion, angiogenesis, heterogeneity, and immunosuppression. In recent years, immunotherapy has emerged as a potentially curative approach for the treatment of some cancers. However, clinical trials thus far using these approaches have demonstrated limited efficacy in GBM. This may be explained in part by the nature of the GBM tumor microenvironment (TME)a hypoxic, acidic, and immunosuppressive immune/inflammatory cell-enriched milieu that promotes tumor development and therapy resistance.
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